Artwork by the author

The Khasi people believe that men were not the only sentient beings sent to earth by the Creator God, the one whom they refer only to as U Nongbuh Nongthaw. There were other spirits and entities too, each with its own sense of purpose, wants and needs. Often deified as earthly gods, these powerful beings are of many kinds and tribes, living alongside human beings since the beginning of time.

The Khasis also believe that some of these beings were specifically sent to earth as custodians and caretakers of nature and the earthly realms. They call these beings Ryngkew or Basa. They were believed to be able to take on any form and reside in their own natural territories – be it a hill, a mountain, a forest, a river or stream, or any place they were appointed to watch over. Known to be fierce protectors of their own territories, these beings are often most feared and respected by the people who are aware of their existence. The belief still survives to this day.

People need to hunt in the recent past to stay alive, especially in places where farming is not a fruitful labour. There were however certain parts of the wildlands and jungles where they were forbidden to do so. Under no circumstances should people be allowed to harm anything inside these forests – for these forests are believed to be under the stewardship of the earthly gods, the Ryngkews and the Basas. Bad things often befall people who fail to abide by this code. The gods (the Ryngkews and the Basas), they believed, can grant curses and also wishes to those who happen to meet them, although it is very rare for them to do so. Usually they like to be left alone and undisturbed. No one knows what happens if the Ryngkew or Basa gets disturbed and certainly no one would want to find out. This belief of the Khasi people too is still strong to this day, with some of these age-old reserved forests still intact and venerated.

Once, there was a person named Kani who lives in the town of Nongrim, who loves hunting more than anything else in the world. So great was his love for the sport that he would choose to devote many nights in the forest hunting, rather than spend quality time at home with his loving family and friends. Gradually his unbridled passion turned into an unhealthy addiction, while his fame as a crazed hunter of Nongrim never seems to stop spreading. As a hunter, he was lauded for knowing even the most obscure tracks in every forest in the region and for the wonderful trophies he brought back to the markets. As a person, however, he was heavily disliked by many, particularly by his family and folks at home for his insincerity, general indifference and lack of respect for anything but himself.

One day, while Kani was out again on yet another hunting spree, he accidently crossed into one of these sacred parts of the forests not far from his village. Named Rangpongpa, this part of the forest is so old and ancient that the memory of it being a place of a certain forest god has long passed away along with the memory of his name.

As an exceptionally experienced hunter, Kani knows his way around the forests as he knows the back of his hand for he is quite familiar with the areas around his village. Only this time however, he sensed that he had never been in that part of the forest before. Nothing seems familiar, except for the vegetation which seems to have grown a lot thicker and the trees which seem to have grown a lot taller. There was a certain kind of unusual dread in the air and Kani seemed to have sensed it too. Something strange was definitely afoot.

Usually, people would turn back when things like these happen but Kani isn’t in the least afraid of these things. He is even more excited as ever because he had never hunted in this strange area before. Since this part of the forest seems thicker, he expected that there would be more exotic animals and hence, more trophies. Eventually, he found his perfect place near a waterhole as he perched himself on a branch of a very tall Soh-um tree and waited with his rifle – oiled and loaded.

As the sun starts to go down, the forest gradually loses its colour to an almost pitch blackness of the night. So far, no animal in sight, Kani thought as he remained there perching motionlessly on the branch, a skill befitting only a few men of his calibre. After another couple of hours of waiting, Kani was suddenly awakened from his half-slumber by a white thing flashing out of the nearby thickets. He cocked his gun and aimed at the spot where the movement was seen.

What he saw surprised him so much that he nearly fell off the tree in excitement.

It was a fox with an especially bright white fur moving about in the bushes seemingly unaware of Kani’s presence. The white fur is so bright; it shines – almost mimicking the half moon above it. Kani eventually regained his position as he aimed his gun at the white thing again. “A white ghostly fox…” He gleefully thought to himself. “...what a score! Imagine how much money they would give me for this!”

In his defense, the fox did look like something out of a fairy tale. White, spotless and ethereal, the enchanting animal stood out of the darkness like a well misplaced apparition. The sight is most otherworldly indeed.

Kani, fully regained, was just about to pull the trigger when he heard a very loud, booming and deafening voice that seemed to be coming from nowhere and everywhere at once.

“Go Home!”

Taken off guard, Kani relaxed his aim and listened to the strange voice for a few seconds. The source of the voice cannot be determined, neither is its direction. When no other sound was heard, he grudgingly took to aiming the rifle again, thinking that he was just simply imagining things. That it was all in his head.

When he was just about to pull the trigger, he heard the voice again. This time it was louder and a lot more terrifying.


And this time, Kani was scared because he had heard it loud and clear. He was definitely not imagining it. It was most definitely not in his head. It was real. No sooner than he realized this, he started hearing the loud thumping sounds that are slowly drawing closer. The thumping sounds raised several hairs on his neck as he panicked and quickly packed up his rifle and nap sack in an attempt to flee before things got any worse. But before he could leap from the tree branch into the ground below, he saw a shadowy figure of a very big animal approaching him with the same loud thumping sounds that could only have come from the animal’s exaggerated footsteps.

As soon as he saw what it actually was, Kani froze. By then, the huge human-like thing had come out of the shadow of the trees and into the faint light feebly shone by the waning half-moon. This bizarre creature was so grotesquely huge that although it was standing with its feet on the ground below, all Kani could see were its big bare tummy and its pair of thick monstrous pillar-sized legs. And whatever this thing is, it is stomping towards Kani, slowly, threateningly, with a strange calculated intensity. The upper part of the body including the head cannot be seen as it was so high above the trees!

The frightened master hunter stumbled, lost his footing and fell from the branch of the tall Soh-um tree. Luckily the forest floor of thick fallen leaves broke his fall and he was unharmed. He quickly got to his feet and ran home as fast as his legs could carry him without ever looking back. Any thoughts of the white ghostly fox had completely left him by then as he ran towards home without stopping.

Upon reaching the village, the story of Kani’s terrifying ordeal spread like wildfire. It was later ruled out to be a rare encounter with a Ryngkew, one of the guardian gods of the natural world. To make things even stranger, this specific part of the woods where the leaves are bigger and the trees are taller, was never found when villagers went to look for it in the following morning. It was also ruled out that Kani, who was once a proud man, was far too humbled by the supposed encounter to be lying about it, or so the villagers thought. But whatever it was that he saw, legend has that Kani never went hunting ever again.

Donboklang Majaw is a multimedia specialist with years of experience in development communications. Donbok likes to read, write, sketch and paint in his free time. He also plays guitar and compose music for bands like Retrosage and Ïaiong.

Reminiscing Dr Bidhu Bhusan Dutta

To muse over any life, especially a life that was lived as somewhat one of its kind in more than one sense usually is a self-enriching exercise. At a time when the language of arrogance and hate, regularly steals the show, revisiting a life that strived to be loving, gentle, compassionate, upright and not overbearing certainly serves to reaffirm our faith on the intrinsic attributes of civil and social life in the 19th century. Any scope to indulge in such an exercise also serves as an open invitation to have a trip down memory lane and revalue the past from a newer perspective.

Time and people, we all know, once gone are gone forever.  Yet, that hardly justifies us to lose sight of the fact that our present is nothing but a derivative of that bygone. In ceaselessly learning and unlearning from whatever we experience in the journey of life lies the scope of amelioration of our destiny. Lessons we may derive from some lives can indeed be of much help in this regard.

A host of people who knew him from close quarters would perhaps unhesitatingly agree that Dr Bidhu Bhusan Dutta was a witty, warm hearted and alert personality who wore many hats. He was caring, compassionate, firm and focused besides being a serious academic, social activist, institution builder, philanthropist, and seasoned politician. Unlike as it often happens in the present, a difference of opinion even if erupted into fierce debates had never, ended up in a hurt feeling leading to a breakup in relations. On many a times if someone used to have different take on the way he chose to react, he used to say, ‘I cannot abandon anyone. If someone chooses to leave me it is their take.’ Four decades of association with Dr Dutta was bound to have its own ups and turns. If that had never succeeded in denting the personal bonding of love and respect we mutually were privy to from day one, much of that credit rests on his composed and endearing personality.

Bidhu Bhusan Dutta was born at a time when the country was struggling hard to secure her freedom from the clasp of colonial rulers. He was born to the Dutta family of Duttagram at Maulavibazar, Sylhet now in Bangladesh. Sylhet was one of the revenue surplus districts of the Assam-Bengal Province. Its relatively better economic standing helped it develop a rich socio-cultural as also educational base. Hence scores of personalities from this place played lead roles in influencing the academic, political, social and cultural activities of the time. Sri Bipin Chandra Pal of the indomitable Lal, Bal, Pal trio in India’s struggle for independence, Dr Syed Muztaba Ali, the renowned scholar, teacher and author, Dr Triguna Sen, noted academic and the Education Minister of independent India, to name a few amongst others who hailed from Karimganj, then a subdivision of Sylhet.

Sri Bidhu Bhusan Dutta had his early education at Karimganj which by then had become a subdivision of the district of Cachar in a freed but partitioned India. After completing his early schooling, he came to Shillong and took admission in the Arts stream in St. Edmund’s College from where he got himself graduated with honours in Economics. He came in contact with Dr Basudev Datta Ray, his teacher and hostel warden and Sri Hiteshwar Saikia, one of his classmates as also his hostel roommate. As it had to happen, both Dr Datta Ray and Sri Saikia had played vital role in the shaping of his life and activities in the years that followed.

Sri Dutta studied in Shillong, the capital of undivided Assam during his student days at St Edmund’s college. The quaint hill city that it then used to be, was generally viewed as the educational hub and socio-cultural capital of the region. As such, he took full advantage through his active association with some such social, cultural and spiritual organisations to gain deeper insight into the dynamics of public relations. Sri Dutta’s leadership qualities were enhanced by his efforts to form regular though informal study groups with select fellow friends who were inclined to develop a more profound and nuanced understanding of the social dynamics then at play. ‘Fariadi’ meaning ‘plaintiff’ was the outcome of one such endeavour that during its rather short existence attempted to record, analyse and place in perspective  some of the burning social concerns of the time. Subtly, and possibly unknowing, he was being prepared for his glory days in the realm of politics.

After graduation, Sri Dutta left Shillong for a while and went to Calcutta to do his Masters from there. He began his teaching career as a professor of Economics at his college and served the institution for over three decades. His skills at teaching enthralled scores of his students over the years and contributed towards his establishing a lifelong bonding with many of them. Late Sri Purno A Sangma, formerly hon’ble Speaker, Loksabha and the hon’ble Chief Minister of Meghalaya was one of his illustrious students.

His presence in the college common room, and the discourses and dialogues that used to take place at the college canteen over tea and snacks with him as the table head indeed were vigorous and enriching. We the younger ones at the table were almost never allowed to foot the tea and snacks bill during those not so rather routine moments.

Sri Dutta’s keen interest to remain informed and alive on the developing trends in his subject prompted him to be in touch with legendary scholars and teachers of hard core economics such as Professor Amlan Dutta, Professor Bhabotosh Datta, Professor Tapash Shankar etc. It was this association that in the later days inspired him to edit and publish the ‘Selected Works of Prof. Amlan Dutta’ in five volumes. His interest and inclination to learn, his own erudition and fluency in English, the language that is used as the medium of instruction in the institute where he taught, helped him to evolve as a radiant teacher in his field.

The incisive academician in him had always driven him to write and research in the scores of published research papers. Some of his select publications include the books Resurgent India (Edited), Land Use Pattern in North East India, Insurgency and Economic Development in North East India, Economic Development through Banking – A case study of Meghalaya, Shifting Cultivation in North East India amongst scores of others in which he did contribute a chapter of his own.

In this context, I fondly recollect the evening sessions I was privy to attend at his home at Laitumkhrah on days he could spare time to join in enlivening discourses to the general enrichment of all present there. During the time he was writing his doctoral thesis (he obtained his Ph. D. degree in Economics from Gauhati University under the supervision of Professor K. Alam). Such sessions used to be rather frequent with our very obliging boudi, Smt Krishna Dutta, his better half, generously supplying us tea and mouthwatering snacks.

He was deft in handling apparently contradicting situations with relative ease. People of caliber and competence are always a rare breed, but if available, they become significant sources of support and strength to the institutions they serve. Dr Dutta surely has left an enviable legacy behind him in this regard.

In his tenure at St. Anthony’s College, he was well appreciated by the management for being an exemplary teacher and also because he had always been thoroughgoing in his approach in extending support to the institution in its endeavour to live unto its maxim ‘ever more, better ever’. At the same time while representing fellow colleagues as employees of the institution, he enjoyed their unwavering trust as well. The goodwill he enjoyed across a broad spectrum of academic, political, bureaucratic circles had often been of tremendous help for seeing issues in perspective.

Teachers, are often referred to as the nation builders. Seldom, however, the nation cares to reward its teachers to materially compensate the service they render to the cause of nation building. He was alive to this cruel reality. He was a founding member of the Meghalaya College Teachers’ Association and influenced the adoption of University Grants Commission (UGC) scales of pay for college teachers in the state. He also served as President of Shillong Academy and Women’s College until his death.

Despite his involvement with academic institutions, he was also associated with other social and Philanthropic institutions. One of his outstanding contributions to the people of Shillong in particular and that of the region in general and beyond was the establishment of the Sri Aurobindo Institute of Indian Culture. As its Founder Chairman and Managing Trustee, it was this initiative that kept him involved in bitter struggles at various levels for a long period, nearly till the time he breathed his last. Asian Confluence is another of the institutions of which he, as its founding Chairperson, shouldered the responsibilities of steering its activities all along.

As founder Chairman of the project Resurgent India, a think-tank comprising of hundred prominent Indian personalities hailing from various disciplines of life. He steered to carry forward the Resurgent India Movement aiming to reclaim the lost glory the country once used to busk on. Divyo Jeevan Foundation Trust was another of his cultural units established and chaired by him till the last. Amongst the spiritual organisation he was linked with was the North East Apex Body of Vyakti Vikas Kendra India (Art of Living Foundation) of which he was a former Chairman and Chief Advisor.

Politically he was associated with Congress(I) and had held at different points of time positions such as the Secretary, MPCC(I), General Secretary, North Eastern Congress Coordination Committee and also as Member, All India Congress Committee. He became a Working Committee Member of the Nationalist Congress Party of which he also was one of the key founding members.

In 1993, he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) As a member of the Parliament he had served in various Parliamentary Committees that include the Consultative Committee of The Ministry of External Affairs, the Standing Committee of the Ministry of Defence, the Standing Committee of Human Resource Development, Standing Committee of the Ministry of Commerce and Petition Committee of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House). His insightful viewpoints and endearing attitude earned accolades across political spectrum. What perhaps made him standout in sharp difference from many of his ilk is his deep sense of compassion and concern for the general well being of all and sundry. I do not recollect a single instance when invited to any private or public gathering, he failed to ask for arranging food for his accompanying support staff.

A deep understanding of the region and its people gathered over years of experiences and reading made him one of the pioneers to float the idea of opening the region up to the South Asian countries for economic, socio-cultural and commercial activities thus strengthening the nationalist political forces in the north-eastern region in his proactive role as the Founder General Secretary of the North East Pradesh Congress Coordination Committee. The root of the Look East Policy of India, in a way, could be traced in that fore thinking which eventually facilitated the north east to realise its new found significance and the role it is capable of playing to support the cause of national development. He had the heart to do good for people but hardly strived to hog the limelight for himself.

As individuals, we all nurse our own dreams. Dr Dutta had his dreams, but his dreams far more inclusive in nature and wider in vision than most of us are capable of. Indomitable courage to take fresh challenges and a deep love for life had always inspired him to dare and take risks that, to many of us, often bordered on madness. Yet, with a tremendous capacity to persuade, he prevailed over us to be partners in his dream even if that seemed nothing but a utopia to us in the beginning. In the last phase of his life, he was actively dreaming to give shape to his pet project of establishing a quality liberal university in India.

Dr Dutta had departed from this worldly arena on the edge of a time that is undergoing substantial perception reorientation. The institutions he struggled to build are likely to lose their relevance sooner than he thought they actually would. The spirit that inspired him in the struggle would, however, remain ever relevant. It is an angry time that, even if someone deems foolish, tries to hold the bygone largely accountable for all the tribulations that define our present. The calmness of mind and thought is so essential to appreciate that it is not in blaming but in learning from the past that we are likely to find solutions to our predicaments of the present. The seething anger within for the frustrating existential reality of the present may leave us blinded and, therefore, unable to appreciate that the bygone generations too had their limitations and compulsions as we do today. Provided we care to calm our minds and pause a while to ponder over lives like that of Dr Bidhu Bhusan Dutta, we may hope to learn a few things from them that can be of use in mending the present in a meaningful manner.

Dr Debasish Chowdhury: former Princip[al of Women’s College, Shillong, presently the controller of Examination in NEHU, loves to write and was in close association with Sri B B Dutta

Sngi:A Mystic of Enlightenment

Raphael Warjri

I heard of him several times from my father before, but that was the first time when I got to see and hear from him directly. He was there for a talk on Khasi Literature for a documentary film that was made for Doordarshan. His words were so warm that I slowly started to take a keen interest in knowing about him. I studied the books, he wrote and translated, and his journey to the West. What captivated me more was his will-power. Belonging to a small village in Ri-Bhoi district, he travelled across the world, learning new languages and treading unknown paths.
When Autumn came to an end and the January cold was to settle, Rev. Sylvanus Sngi Lyndoh, a man of excellence, was born to light the night’s sky. He was the eldest son of the fifteen children of Ka Mon Lyndoh Thaïang and U Michael Ram Sten, from the Thaïang village of Meghalaya.
The year 1907 came as a thorn in a bed of roses. People suffered from malaria and leprosy. Being anxious of the heart-wrenching situation, the great-grandmother of Rev. Sylvanus Sngi Lyndoh, Tyngab Lyngdohsad, suggested one of her sons, Ajir Lyngdoh Thaïang, along with nine other men from the village to seek help from the town. The journey to Shillong was not an easy task. Vehicles were not readily available and, as a result, they had to walk down nearly a hundred kilometres to reach Shillong. They met Monseigneur Christopher Becker from whom they borrowed some money and who they promised to repay. The kind-hearted priest agreed to their request and, that is how, they helped the village folks recover with that money. On certain occasions, Monseigneur Christopher Becker also visited the village.In 1911, during Easter, Monseigneur baptized some of the village folks, including the grand-uncle/father of Rev. S. S. Lyngdoh. He was rechristened as Ajir Thomas Lyngdoh. Seeing the priest’s passionate love for the poor village men, the great-grandmother of Rev. S. S. Lyngdoh, Tyngab, who was a high priestess of the Thaïang traditional province, donated a vast land at Pamkdait for charity and missionary work.
A significant event took place during World War I. The Salvatorian deported in 1921, and Jesuit Congregation had taken over the missionary work. The congregation of Salesian of Don Bosco arrived in the Khasi Hills on 13th January, 1922.
The family of Rev. S.S. Lyngdoh soon shifted from Thaïang to Umtyrkhang. The village was situated near a sacred Grove, and many ceremonies were performed there. On one such occasion, he came in contact with an old priest, and the priest swayed the lad’s heart. Rev. S.S Lyngdoh and some other village men were baptized by the old priest, Rev. Constantine Vendrame. Rev. S.S. Lyngdoh was a very passionate and intelligent boy. He travelled on foot to Shillong to enrol himself at the Don Bosco Institute as an artisan of the printing press. Simultaneously, he started to study at St. Anthony’s School in Shillong. To pursue a higher education in Philosophy and Theology, he was required to learn Latin, and he soon mastered the language.
In 1942, he studied at the Salesian High School, Sonada, Darjeeling, and subsequently at the Sacred Heart College, Mawlai, Shillong, in 1947, for his novitiate. In 1954, deacon Sylvanus Sngi Lyngdoh was sent to Europe for further studies. He started his voyage to the West to explore, learn, and carry back with him a part of it.
His voyage to Europe was a little difficult as he fell sick on the way. He took no notice of these petty situations and dedicated his life to studying Theology. His hard work paid him good results as he topped not only his class but the whole of Europe. He officially took priesthood on 1st July, 1958, at the Church of Mary Help of Christian, Turin in Italy, built by Don Bosco himself. Soon after the ordination ceremony, he and seven other deserving students were selected to study further in Rome. Thus, a new vista of opportunity was waiting at his doorstep. He initially had been entrusted with studying Canon Law, but his interest lay somewhere else. He opted to study Biblical Studies at Biblicum, the Biblical Institute.
He took great interest in learning languages as well. He could speak nearly thirty languages. Like his mother tongue, he paid equal attention to each language which he spoke with perfection. As a part of his missionary work, he visited Venice, Yugoslavia, Greece, Istanbul, Turkey, Lebanon, Damascus, Syria, Palestine, and Jerusalem in 1961. He was chosen to study Hebrew and completed the course within five months, along with five other scholars. He extended his journey to many different places and, finally, he returned to Bombay after a long time.
He was a devoted son and, on reaching India, he traced his route back to his village Mawbri, where his mother was. Both were delighted to see each other after 20 years. He wanted to give back to the soil he was born on. He plunged into social activities in Smit, Nonglyput, Khliehriat, Ladrymbai, Laitkynsew, Mawlong, Ichamati, Tyllap, Diengrai, Saikarap, Nongriat, Umwai, Thieddieng, Nongsteng, Shella, Nongtrai, Kynshluit, Lyngkhom, Mynteng, and several other villages across the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, including Ri-Bhoi. Apart from social activities, there were instances when others experienced strange and unbelievable incidents in his presence. He was believed to be blessed and had a very positive vibe. He even performed exorcism and spiritual healing on local people. He conducted a cross-cultural matrimony commonly known as ‘Tangjait’ in Khasi. He introduced a collective term, ‘Hynñiewtrep Hynñiewskum’, to represent Meghalaya’s indigenous communities, in which the Garos were not included. During 1978, however, when there was a political crisis, he led from the forefront to unify three parties to form a coalition government.
He worked for the betterment of the people. His knowledge in Hebrew and Greek enabled him to write a dictionary that was translated to Khasi. Another remarkable incident of his life took place, in 1975, when he was strolling near a temple in Jerusalem. A group of tourists had come to visit the area and, on their way, they came across Rev. S.S Lyngdoh. While talking to them, he told them about his motive and his native place. He confided in them his grievances and told them about his financial constraints that stopped him from publishing his translated dictionaries. They heard him all and bade him farewell without any commitment. Within two weeks, he received a letter from one of the women tourists, Sue Ann Bentz Altman, and, to his utter amazement, he found a cheque of six thousand dollars, which was precisely his estimated amount. Rev. Sylvanus Sngi Lyngdoh published the Hebrew-Khasi, Aramaic-Khasi, and Greek-Khasi dictionaries within a short period of time and dedicated this success to the generous lady who donated the money. His research and accomplishments saw a new dawn. Three thousand copies of his books were shipped to Shillong.
He authored 28 books in his life, mostly on Biblical commentaries, Khasi philosophy, and Khasi folk tales. He was one of the pillars of the Khasi Department’s foundation in the North-Eastern Hill University in Shillong in 1978. He was a member in selecting the faculty members of the Department.
He never let time go. Whenever he would sit for talks, he would continue for hours. Every listener would be engrossed by his words. His love for the Khasi culture knew no bounds. He published a Khasi newspaper, called ‘Ka Sur Shipara’, from 1976 to 1990, which contained both secular and religious information. When Pope John Paul II visited Shillong, Rev. S. S Lyngdoh was a part of the delegation. He adorned himself with the Khasi traditional turban and committed to keeping its respect and heritage until his last breath.
He lived his life as an exponent on cultural, political, and social growth, environment conservation, educational progress, the well-being of humanity, economic prosperity, and commanded the trust and confidence of the authority with sheer humility and clarity of thought. Rev. Sylvanus Sngi Lyngdoh never remained inactive for a moment of his mortal being until five-past-ten, in the morning of 28th May, 2016, when he took his last breath. He was a legendary icon who will live in our hearts and dwell in people’s minds across the globe as an inspiration.
Lyngdoh, Sylvanus Sngi, Kharkrang, Roland, Ka Jingim bad Jinghikai jong U

Back to Autumn 2020


Most Rev Dominic Jala, Archbishop of Shillong Archdiocese and Fr Mathew Vellankal passed away in a fatal road accident on 10 October, 2019 when the car they were travelling crashed with a truck at Colusa County, Oakland, California, USA, while Fr Joseph Pareckatt suvived with serious injury. Rev Jala was the Chairman Catholic Conference of Bishops in India Commission for Liturgy from 2015 and the member Vatican Congreagation for Divine Worship and Sacraments from 2012 to 2019 September, besides some vital religious responsibilities in the local, national and international congregations of the Catholic Church. Rev Jala was born on 12 July 1951, he professed liturgical devotion on 24 May 1969, and ordained a priest on 19 November 1977. After serving the church in various capacities including the Provincial of the Salesian of Don Bosco, Guwahati before his episcopal ordination on 2 April, 2000, even as he was appointed the Archbishop of Shillong Archdiocese on December, 1999.
At the peak of militancy in Meghalaya, Rev Dominic Jala played a pivotal role in the Khasi Jaintia Church Leaders’ Forum and was instrumental in pacifying with the rebel cadres on certain occasions. Although as an apex church leader in the region, he was known for his secular outlook, humility, versatile scholarship and intellectual acumen. Among the trivial but significant religious traditions, he will be remembered by every faithful for the synergy between the ordinary faithful, laity and clergy in various religious issues. Till the other day, it has always been a conventional practice among the Catholic faithful to pay homage to the bishop with a bow or a kneel including a kiss on his pontifical ring, but it ceased to continue during the tenure of Rev Dominic Jala. He was also a connoisseur of fine arts when he related the famous sculpture of Michael Angelo, the Pieta with the matrilineal custom of the Khasi people. Rev Jala indicated that the sacrifice and passion of Christ for mankind found solace and compassion at the bosom of his mother, Mary. Many astounding and thought provoking deliberations on wide range of topics were elucidated in simple oral narrative and that was the forte of his genius. Rev Archbishop Jala had visited the Vivekananda Cultural Centre on 21 December 2016 where he was enthused by the ‘fruit of dedicated service by Ram Krishna Mission.’ He will always be remembered for his ever pleasant smile and affectionate gesture to every person he met on the way.

स्वतंत्रता संग्राम के अग्रदूत ऊ तिरोत सिगं

डॉ. श्रुति पाण्डडे

भारत के स्वतंत्रता संग्राम का इतिहास देश के हर क्षेत्र के स्वाधीनता संग्राम सेनानियों के बलिदानों की गाथाओं से भरा पड़़ा है। परन्तु इनमें तमाम ऐसे वीर भी हैं जिनकी चर्चा प्रमुखता से इतिहास ग्रंथों में नहींं मिलती। इन बलिदानी वीरों ने स्वतंत्रता और मानवीय गरिमा की पुनर्स्थापना के लिये संघर्ष किया और उनके त्याग की गाथा ने आने वाली तमाम पीढ़ियों को प्रभावित किया। उनके बलिदान की कहानी हमें देश के महान आदर्शों और मूल्यों की याद दिलाती है। ऐसे ही महान वीरों में एक नाम सुदूर मेघालय के तिरोत सिंग का भी आता है।
मेघालय की खासी-जयन्तिया पहाड़ियों के नयनाभिराम सौंदर्य के बीच बसने वाली खासी जनजाति ने युगों से स्वतंत्रता की तीव्र आकांक्षा को बनाये रखा है। इसी खासी जनजाति के बलिदानी वीर तिरोत सिंग पूर्वोत्तर क्षेत्र के ऐसे महान वीर थे जिन्होंने जातीय अस्मिता की रक्षा के लिये तब संघर्ष किया था जब हमारा देश औपनिवेशिक सत्ता से आक्रांत होने की प्रक्रिया में था। हमारे देश की जनता को तब अंग्रेजी हुकूमत की चुनौती का सामना करना पड़़ रहा था। इस समय पूर्वोत्तर के पहाड़ी क्षेत्रों की अखंडता को बनाये रखने में तिरोत सिंग की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका थी। तिरोत सिंग के नेतृत्व में अंग्रेजों के साथ हुए संघर्षों ने खासी जनमानस पर अमिट छाप छोड़ी है। त्याग, साहस और बलिदान से भरी इन वीरतापूर्ण गाथाओं का हस्तांतरण पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी होता रहा। परन्तु यह दुर्भाग्यपूर्ण है कि तिरोत सिंग और उनके प्रतिरोध के विषय में मेघालय के बाहर बहुत कम जानकारी है।
अठारहवीं शताब्दी के अन्त से ही ईस्ट इंडिया कम्पनी ने खासी मुखियों के क्षेत्रों में घुसपैठ करनी शुरु कर दी थी। इनमें से एक मुखिया थे तिरोत सिंग, जो पूर्वोत्तर क्षेत्र के पहले स्वतंत्रता संग्राम सेनानी थे। इन्होंने दूरदराज के खासी जनों को ब्रिटिश आधिपत्य के खिलाफ एक सूत्र में बांधा था। तिरोत सिंग और उनके साथियों ने अंग्रेजों का डटकर मुकाबला किया और छापामार (गुरिल्ला) युद्ध शैली अपना कर दुर्गम पहाड़ी क्षेत्र में इसका कारगर उपयोग किया।
अंग्रेजी सरकार का खासी और जयन्तिया पहाड़ियों से आरम्भिक सम्पर्क आर्थिक था। सन् 1765 में बंगाल की दीवानी हासिल करने के साथ ही वे खासियों से और उनके क्षेत्र से परिचित हुए। खासी चूना खदानों से बंगाल ने प्राचीन काल से ही चूना आपूर्ति की थी और इसी कारण यूरोपीय उद्यमी खासी पहाड़ियों की ओर आकर्षित हुए।1—दीवानी का अधिकार प्राप्त करने के बाद कम्पनी ने चूना व्यापार पर एकाधिकार प्राप्त कर लिया। खासियों के साथ व्यापारिक आदान-प्रदान के कारण ब्रिटिश—व्यापारियों का खासी मुखियों के साथ वाणिज्यिक संबंध स्थापित हुआ।1 खासी पहाड़ियों पर ब्रिटिश—आधिपत्य के पीछे इन पहाड़ियों में अंग्रेजो की आर्थिक दिलचस्पी थी। साथ ही वे सिलहट और असम को जोड़ने वाली सीधी सड़क चाहते थे जिसे इन पहाड़ियों में से होकर गुजरना था। सन् 1824 में अंग्रेज बर्मी युद्ध में शामिल हुए। इस युद्ध का अन्त यान्दाबो की सन्धि के साथ सन् 1836 में हुआ। पूर्वोत्तर भारत में ब्रिटिश उपनिवेशवादी विस्तार और आधिपत्य में इस सन्धि की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका है। इस सन्धि के परिणामस्वरूप असम पर अंग्रेजी हुकूमत का कब्जा हो गया और डेविड स्कॉट को असम का कमिश्नर नियुक्त किया गया। वे पहले से ही पूर्वोत्तर सीमान्त में गवर्नर-जनरल के एजेन्ट थे। इन गतिविधियों ने खासी इतिहास में नये अध्याय की श्ुारुआत की।
खासी जनजाति की राजनीतिक व्यवस्था लोकतांत्रिक थी। अंग्रेजों के आने से पूर्व खासी पहाड़ियों में लगभग 30 राज्य थे। इन राज्यों में एक परिषद् होती थी जिसका अध्यक्ष ‘सिएम’(मुखिया) होता था, परन्तु इन परिषदों की स्वीकृति के बिना मुखिया कोई महत्वपूर्ण निर्णय नहींं ले सकता था। इन्हीं छोटे-छोटे गणराज्यों से खासियों की राजनीतिक व्यवस्था निर्मित थी। स्वतंत्रता उनकी रगों में बसती थी। ऐसे स्वतंत्रता प्रेमी लोगों द्वारा दमनकारी विदेशी सत्ता के विरुद्ध प्रतिरोध खड़ा किया जाना स्वाभाविक ही था।3
अंग्रेजों के आने से पहले भी खासियों ने कई शक्तिशाली शत्रुओं के खिलाफ लड़ाईयाँ लड़ी थीं। मान, अहोम और बर्मियों के खिलाफ उन्हें संघर्ष करना पड़ा था। दक्षिणी सीमा पर मुगलों की शक्तिशाली सेनाओं के खिलाफ उन्हें लड़ाई लड़नी पड़ी थी। इन युद्धों के संघर्षपूर्ण अनुभव के कारण वे अंग्रेजों द्वारा पूर्ण आधिपत्य स्थापित करने से पूर्व वर्षों तक उनका प्रतिरोध कर सके। अलेक्जेंडर मैकेन्जी ने सन् 1869 में लिखा था, ‘‘कोसिया (खासिया) ने अपने युद्धप्रिय चरित्र और जनजातीय व्यवस्था के कारण हमें दूसरी पहाड़ी जातियों की तुलना में अधिक परेशान किया है।’’2
नौंग्खलाव युद्ध (खासी स्वतंत्रता की लड़ाई) से पहले भी खासियों ने अंग्रेजी सेना के खिलाफ कई युद्ध किए। पहला संघर्ष सन् 1774 में हुआ, जिसके बारे में अलेक्जेंडर मेकेन्जी ने सन् 1869 में लिखा कि यह सिलहट में हुए किसी संघर्ष का परिणाम था। इसी प्रकार सन् 1778 के ब्रिटिश रिकार्डों में अंग्रेज सेनाओ ंऔर चेरा-मौसमाई तथा शेला राज्यों के बीच हुए संघर्षों का विवरण है।5
जयन्तिया और शिलांग इन पहाड़ियों में स्थापित होने वाले पहले राज्य थे। दूसरे राज्यों की स्थापना तब हुई जब इन दोनों राज्यों से लोग कम जनसंख्या वाले पश्चिमी क्षेत्रों की ओर बढ़ने लगे। यहाँ एक के बाद एक कई राज्यों की स्थापना हुई। इस समय से खासी राज्यों ने बांग्लादेश और असम के अन्य राज्यों से मैत्रीपूर्ण संबंध कायम किये। उनके बीच व्यापारिक तथा वाणिज्यिक संबंध भी बने। किन्तु बाद में सीमा-विवाद के कारण खासी राज्यों के उत्तर में मान तथा बर्मा से तथा दक्षिण में मुगलों और अंग्रेजों से कई युद्ध करने पड़े। मुगलों और अंग्रेजों जैसी साम्राज्यवादी शक्तियों ने जब असम और बांग्लादेश के मैदानेां में घुसपैठ करना प्रारंभ किया तो खासी पहाड़ियों के इन छोटे, स्वतंत्र राज्यों ने आपस में एकजुट होकर उनसे मोर्चा लिया। इस प्रकार उनमें एक प्रकार का गठबन्धन हो गया।
सन् 1765 में मुगलों ने ईस्ट इंडिया कम्पनी को पूर्वी बंगाल (वर्तमान बांग्लादेश) की दीवानी दी, जिसकी सीमा दक्षिण में खासी और जयन्तिया पहाड़ियों से लगी हुई थी और गोआलपाड़ा तक फैली थी। इस प्रकार अंग्रेजों ने इस क्षेत्र में अपनी जड़ें जमा लीं। सन् 1819 में डेविड स्कॉट को गोआलपाड़ा भेजा गया। स्कॉट ने सुझाव दिया कि पूर्वी बंगाल में मैमन सिंह और असम में गोआलपाड़ा को जोड़ने वाली सड़क बनाई जाए। डेविड स्कॉट ने इस समय तक खासी और जयन्तिया पहाड़ियों की स्थितियों का गहराई से अध्ययन किया था। उन्होंने समझ लिया था कि खासी शासकों की एकता का कुशल नेतृत्व एक ही व्यक्ति कर सकता है और वे हैं तिरोत सिंग, नौंग्ख्लाव के सिएम, जो एक तेजस्वी राजा, कुशल प्रशासक, परिपक्व राजनीतिज्ञ और असाधारण नेता थे।
तिरोत सिंग का जन्म अठारहवीं शताब्दी के अन्त में नौंग्ख्लाव में हुआ था। उनकी माता का नाम का क्सान सिएम और पिता का नाम खीन कोनगोर था जो लाइट लिंगकोट के नौग्किनरिह ग्राम के नौंगकिनरिह खानदान के थे।6 अपनी युवावस्था में तिरोत सिंग गठीले बदन के लम्बे और सुदर्शन युवक थे। वे अस्त्र-शस्त्रों के प्रयोग में दक्ष व कुशल घुड़सवार थे तथा तीरंदाजी, तैराकी और शिकार के शौकीन थे। राजा बनने के पहले राजा छतरसिंग के शासन काल से ही उन्होंने राजकार्य में गहरी दिलचस्पी लेनी शुरू कर दी थी। उप सिएम के रूप में तिरोत सिंग नौंग्ख्लाव राज्य के सबसे सक्षम प्रशासकों में से एक थे। उस समय उन्होंने अपने साहस, रणकौशल और अद्वितीय संगठनशक्ति का परिचय दिया था। स्थानीय विवादों का निपटारा करने की उनकी क्षमता और उनकी प्रशासनिक योग्यताओं ने उन्हें सभी के आदर का पात्र बना दिया और कई योग्य तथा क्षमता-सम्पन्न व्यक्ति उनके मित्र बन गये। बचपन से ही प्रतिभा सम्पन्न तिरोत सिंग को अपने मार्गदर्शकों तथा परामर्शदाताओं से बहुत ही बातें सीखने को मिलीं तथा उन्होंने युद्धकला, व्यूहरचना, कूटनीति आदि में अद्भुत योग्यता हासिल कर ली।7
कोनराय सिंग ऊर्फ छतर सिंग सिएम के देहान्त के बाद नौंग्ख्लाव के पाँचों लिंगडो (पाँच प्रमुख कुलों के प्रतिनिधि) को राजवंश के राजकुमारों में से एक को राजा चुनना था। छतर सिंग का भतीजा और उत्ताराधिकारी नाबालिग था। राज्य की स्थिति विषम थी और प्रजा को एक ऐसे सिएम की आवश्यकता थी जो उसे स्थिर और कुशल नेतृत्व प्रदान कर सके। पाँचों लिंगडो ने एक मत से तिरोत सिंग का चुनाव किया और यह फैसला किया कि तिरोत सिंग के बाद रिजोन सिंग उनके उत्ताराधिकारी होंगे।
राजकुमार के रूप में तिरोत सिंग ने अपने राज्य के मैदानी भागों पर हुए हमलों का सामना किया था। राजा के रूप में उनका पहला महत्वपूर्ण कदम था नौंग्ख्लाव के राज दरबार (हिमा) का आयोजन जिसमें पूरे राज्य के प्रतिनिधियों ने भाग लिया। इस दरबार में उन्होंने अपने राज्य की और विस्तृत अर्थ में पूरे खासी क्षेत्र की स्वतंत्रता और स्वायातता पर मंडरा रहे खतरे के प्रति सचेत किया। उन्होंने खासी युवकों से अनुरोध किया कि वह आसन्न संकट को ध्यान में रखते हुए अपने आपको मातृभूमि की रक्षा के लिये सन्नद्ध रखें। उन्होंने प्रजाजन से अनुरोध किया कि वे छोटे-मोटे मतभेदों को भुलाकर एकजुट हो जायें। उनकी अपील का लोगों पर प्रभाव पड़ा और वे अपने-अपने गाँवों में वापस जाकर अपने आपको तैयार करने लगे। शासक के रूप में तिरोत सिंग की यह पहली सफलता थी।
राज्य के आंतरिक प्रशासन में तिरोत सिंग सिएम ने कई परिवर्तन किये। अपने सम्पूर्ण राज्य में उन्होंने विकेन्द्रीकरण की प्रक्रिया शुरु की। राजदरबार ने स्थानीय दरबारों को यह शक्ति प्रदान की कि वे गाँवों के प्रशासन का दायित्व संभाल सकें। इस दौरान नौंग्ख्लाव राज्य ने पड़ोसी खासी राज्यों के साथ सभी सीमा विवाद सुलझा लिये। आसपास के क्षेत्रों के साथ व्यापारिक संबंधों की महत्ता को ध्यान में रखते हुए तिरोत सिंग ने पड़ोसी खासी राज्यों से व्यापारिक संबंधों को सुदृढ़ बनाने की प्रक्रिया की शुरुआत की।
असम में अपने शासन को संगठित करते समय अंग्रेजों ने खासी हिल- असम सीमा के दुआरों को अपने कब्जे में ले लिया। ये दुआर खासी शासकों के अधीन थे। खासी मुखियों ने पाया कि वे उन दुआरों के अधिकारों से वंचित हैं जो उनकी रोजमर्रा के सामानों की आपूर्ति का मुख्य जरिया था। उन्होंने सीमा पर उर्वर कृषि भूमि खो दी थी और व्यापार भी अंग्रेजों के हाथ में चला गया था। अंग्रेज खासी मुखियों के पारम्परिक अधिकारों में भी हस्तक्षेप करते थे। दुआरों में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बोरदुआर था जो नौंग्ख्लाव राज्य के अधीन था। तिरोत सिंग ने अपने पुश्तैनी क्षेत्र को अंग्रेजों द्वारा हड़पे जाने पर विरोध व्यक्त किया।
सन् 1824 में असम में ब्रिटिश आधिपत्य स्थापित हाने के बाद डेविड स्कॉट ने असम और सिलहट के बीच खासी पहाड़ियों से होकर सीधी यातायात सुविधा के लिये प्रयास शुरू किये। सैन्य दृष्टिकोण से इस योजना का विशेष महत्व था, क्योंकि इससे तीन महीने के बजाय तीन सप्ताह में ही यह दूरी तय की जा सकती थी। सैनिक लाभ के अतिरिक्त स्कॉट की और भी कई योजनाएं थीं। इस क्षेत्र में ब्रिटिश प्रभाव के स्थापित हो जाने से उन छोटे-मोटे खासी मुखियों का प्रभाव खत्म हो जाने की संभावना थी जो सिलहट सीमा के आसपास प्रभावशाली थे।
स्कॉट ने सीमा क्षेत्रों के बाजारों में खासियों से सभी व्यापारिक संबंध समाप्त कर दिये। साथ ही उन्होंने ब्रिटिश सेनाओं को खासी और जयन्तिया पहाड़ियों के दोनों ओर इकट्ठा होने का आदेश दिया। किसी संभावित विद्रोह को ध्यान में रखकर यह कदम उठाया गया था। इन राज्यों की अर्थव्यवस्था अंग्रेजों की आर्थिक नाकेबन्दी के कारण चरमराने लगी। ऐसी स्थिति में स्कॉट ने सुनियोजित योजना के तहत तिरोत सिंग से अपने एजेंट मेघनारायण के माध्यम से बातचीत करनी शुरू की। तिरोत सिंग ने एजेंट को आश्वस्त किया कि वे प्रस्ताव पर विचार करेंगे। वे जानते थे कि आर्थिक नाकेबन्दी का कायम रहना जनता के हित में नहींं होगा। स्कॉट के प्रस्ताव पर विचार करने के लिये राजदरबार का आयोजन नवम्बर 1826 में नौंग्ख्लाव में हुआ। डेविड स्कॉट ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी के प्रतिनिधि मंडल के अध्यक्ष के रूप में नौग्ख्लाव आए। अन्त में समझौता किया गया जिसके तहत तिरोत सिंग ने न केवल ब्रिटिश सेनाओं को अपने क्षेत्र में आवागमन की सुविधा दी, बल्कि रसद पहुंचाने का भी वादा किया। अंग्रेज सरकार की ओर से स्कॉट ने राजा को विदेशी शत्रुओं से बचाने का वादा किया और आन्तरिक प्रशासन के मामले में दखल न देने का आश्वासन दिया। इस समझौते को गवर्नर-जनरल की स्वीकृति मिलने के साथ ही सड़क का निर्माण होने लगा और स्कॉट की इच्छानुसार नौंग्ख्लाव में एक बंगला भी बनाया गया। पर संकट के बादल खासी पहाड़ियों पर मंडरा रहे थे और समझौते के डेढ़ वर्ष के भीतर दुखद घटनाओं का दौर शुरू हो गया।
नौंग्ख्लाव से होकर सड़क बनने के साथ ही ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी ने उसका उपयोग शुरू कर दिया। कुछ समय तक सब कुछ ठीक-ठाक रहा और स्कॉट तथा तिरोत सिंग अच्छे मित्र बन गये। राजा की माता स्कॉट को पुत्रवत मानती थीं। पर दुर्भाग्य से यह मित्रता बहुत दिनों तक न चल सकी। तिरोत सिंग और स्कॉट के बीच संबंध बिगड़ने लगे। राजस्व की वसूली को लेकर दोनों पक्षों में कुछ विवाद हुआ। इसी दौरान नौंग्ख्लाव राज्य से लगे मैदानी क्षेत्र को लेकर तिरोत सिंग और रानी के मुखिया बलराम सिंग के बीच विवाद शुरू हो गया। समझौते के अनुसार तिरोत सिंग ने अंग्रेजों से बलराम सिंग के खिलाफ कारवाई करने का अनुरोध किया। अंग्रेजों द्वारा मदद न मिलने को तिरोत सिंग ने समझौते को उल्लंघन माना। साथ ही नौंग्ख्लाव और कामरूप की सीमा पर अधिक सैनिकों की तैनाती और अंग्रेजों द्वारा अधिक संख्या में भवन बनाये जाने को लेकर तिरोत सिंग को आशंका हुई। इस प्रकार की घुसपैठ पर आपत्ति किये जाने को अंग्रेजों ने रुखाई से नजरअंदाज कर दिया। अंग्रेजों का यह रूखा और अवज्ञापूर्ण व्यवहार तिरोत सिंग और उनके साथियों को नागवार गुजरा।
सबसे ताकतवर राज्यों में से एक मिलियम राज्य के सिएम बोर मानिक ने कुछ अन्य मुखियों के साथ मिलकर तिरोत सिंग के सामने एक प्रस्ताव रखा। यह प्रस्ताव असम तथा पहाड़ी क्षेत्रों के राजाओं से मिलकर विदेशियों को खदेड़ने का था। डेविड स्कॉट मार्च 1829 के अन्त में नौग्ख्लाव में ही थे और उन्हें आसन्न संकट की भनक लग गयी। वे तुरन्त सोहरा (चेरापूँजी) के लिए रवाना हुए ताकि कलकात्ता के उच्चाधिकारियों को सूचना भेजी जा सके। परन्तु उन्हें तिरोत सिंग से किसी खतरे की उम्मीद नहींं थी। इधर तिरोत सिंग पर सभी ओर से दबाव बढ़ रहा था। कामरूप और गोआलपाड़ा में रह रहे गारो और खासी लोगों ने उनसे शिकायत की कि सरकार उनके क्षेत्र में घुसपैठ कर रही है और राजस्व की मांग कर रही है। बोर मानिक और अन्य खासी मुखियों ने शिकायत की कि कामरूप और सिलहट के मैदानी क्षेत्रों में स्थित उनकी भूमि पर अंग्रेजी ने जबरन कब्जा कर लिया है। उनके अपने रिश्तेदार और सरदार शिकायत कर रहे थे कि ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी के सैनिक और अधिकारी स्थानीय लोगों से बुरा बर्ताव कर रहे हैं।
तिरोत सिंग इन शिकायतों को अपने मित्र डेविड स्कॉट तक पहुंचा रहे थे। परन्तु उन्होंने पाया कि स्कॉट द्वारा स्थिति को बेहतर बनाने की तमाम कोशिशों का कोई ठोस नतीजा नहींं निकल पा रहा था। स्कॉट दोषियों को हटाते, उन्हें दण्ड देते, परन्तु उनके स्थान पर जिन लोगों को नियुक्त करते, वे हटाये गये लोगों की तरह ही बुरा बर्ताव करते। अन्त में तिरोत सिंग के सामने अपने साथी मुखियों और सरदारों का प्रस्ताव मानकर अंग्रेजों को भगाने की योजना बनाने के सिवा कोई उपाय न बचा। इसी बीच डेविड स्कॉट ने बोर मानिक तथा अन्य खासी मुखियों की योजनाओं पर पानी फेरने की सोची। उनका ख्याल था कि बोर मानिक को परास्त कर देने के साथ ही तिरोत सिंग तथा अन्य खासी मुखियों का हौसला अपने आप पस्त हो जाएगा। इधर बोर मानिक ने खासी राज्यों की एक परिषद् का संगठन किया जिसमें तिरोत सिंग को सर्वसम्मति से खासी क्षेत्र की स्वतंत्रता की रक्षा के लिए कोई भी निर्णय लेने का अधिकार दिया गया।
4 अप्रैल 1829 को तिरोत सिंग ने खासी योद्धाओं की एक टोली को अंग्रेजों पर हमला करने के लिये भेजा। उन्होंने अंग्रेजों के खिलाफ युद्ध की घोषणा करके लेफ्टिनेंट बर्लटन बचे हुए सैनिकों के साथ कामरूप भागने की कोशिश में मारे गये। इसी बीच खासी योद्धाओं ने नौंग्ख्लाव में सरकारी इमारतों और स्वास्थ्य लाभ केन्द्र को जला दिया। उन्होंने अंग्रेजों द्वारा कैद किये गये बंदियों को छुड़ा दिया।

डब्लू डब्लू हंटर, “अ स्टैटिस्टिकल अकाउंट ऑफ असम”, 205-206.
पी ए दत्ता, इम्पैक्ट ऑफ दि वेस्ट ऑन दि खासीज एण्ड जयन्तियाज, 28.
वैटसन एण्ड वाइट, ‘सरकमस्टान्सेज लीडिंग इन द—एंग्लो-खासी वार’ मेमोरीज ऑफ डेविड स्कॉट, 1984, 34-37
जर्ली टारियांग, तिरोत सिंग, (न्यू दिल्ली: नेशनल पब्लिकेशन, 1990), 9
वही, 10.
वही, 16.
हैमलेट बरेह, तिरोत सिंग, 20.
डॉ. श्रुति पाण्डेय: सह आचार्य एवं अध्यक्ष, हिन्दी विभाग, शिलांग कॉलेज, शिलांग


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